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Women in a Borderland

Managing Muslim Identity where Morocco meets Spain

This is a study of female Muslim identity in a village situated in the Spanish enclave of Ceuta, near the Moroccan border, on the shore of the Straits of Gibraltar.

The study deals with a Muslim Arabic-speaking minority of Moroccan origin, with the spotlight on women as guardians of traditional values and as representatives of Muslim culture in a Spanish-dominated society.

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Table of Contents

9

Foreword

13

Contents

17

Introduction: A Taste for Detail, A Sense of Pattern

37

PART ONE THE DYNAMICS OF TRADITION

38

1. A Past of Change - A Present of Tradition

64

2. Control of Women, Protection of Men

77

PART TWO FROM BRIDE TO HAJA

78

3. Women's Social Ages

84

4. The Girl

103

5. End of Virginity: The Bride

128

6. The Married Woman and Mother

156

7. The Older Woman

179

8. From Mra to Haja

197

PART THREE MANAGEMENT OF THE MORAL SYSTEM

198

9. Morality, Respectability and Prestige

205

10. Female Networks

214

11. Public Talk - Party Talk

227

12. Private Talk - Domestic Talk

244

13. Talk about Evil

271

Conclusion: Female Muslim Identity

290

Notes

306

Glossary

314

References

326

Index